Biodiversity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies an area of approximately 2,000,000 square kilometers, which covers two-third of the area of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea and on the east by the Arabian Gulf. The rugged western mountain range, known as the Hijaz Mountains and the Asir heights extend along the Red Sea coast at heights ranging between 1,300 and 3,000 meters above sea level and overlooks the Tihama coastal plain to the west.
These heights gradually descend to the east towards the interior parts and the Najd plateau to the deserts of the Empty Quarter, An-Nafud, Dahna, and the eastern region, which abound in salt marshes on the coast of the Arabian Gulf.
This geographical location of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in addition to its presence within two domains of desert geographic regions, namely the Eurasian region and the tropical African region, in addition to the presence of small scopes of the Sindhi desert region, contributed to the variation of ecosystems, which in turn contributed to increasing the content of the elements of biodiversity in the Kingdom. There are about 67 surface geological formations in the Kingdom, and each formation has its own climate. Therefore, these formations have become different environments, each containing its own biological diversity.
Measures to preserve biodiversity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have diversified to include all measures to preserve its elements and components in their own natural habitats and to work on developing it in a manner that ensures its continuity and sustainability for future generations.