Among the most important animals in the reserve are the Arabian wolf, sand fox, sand cat and several species of rodents in addition to different species of birds, the most important of which are the Lappet-faced vulture, the Griffon vulture, and the Egyptian vulture, as well as several reptile species.
The reintroduction program began with the release of 17 Arabian oryx in the protected area in 1990, followed by the addition of other smaller groups in successive periods. Reem gazelle and Houbara were also reintroduced there during 1990 and 1991. Red-necked ostrich was also reintroduced in the protected area, which is the closest species to the extinct Arabian ostrich. The numbers of these species have grown under preservation.