The Kingdom's lands, by virtue of its strategic geographical location between three continents, represent one of the most important pathways of bird migration from north to south and from east to west. Its lands have become an important transit point for many bird species, and it is noted that every year new bird species that come to the Kingdom are recorded, some of them may use new habitats as new sites for reproduction and settlement.
The bird groups represent in the Kingdom belong to three origins; Ethiopian (45 species), ancient Arctic (357 species) and Asian (30 species). Thus, the total number of bird species registered in the Kingdom is (499) species that belong to (67) families, of which (223) breeding species. (19 of them are endemic species that live in the Hijaz and Asir mountains) and among the most common endemic species in the kingdom is the Asir Magpie (Pica asirensis), of which there are only 100 breeding pairs left now. About (276) migratory or kingdom's territory crossing species have been recorded. Migratory or resident birds on the coasts of the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf find safe havens, especially the Arabian Gulf, where millions of birds, especially wading birds visit. Birds are considered one of the most widespread and distributed vertebrates in all regions of the world, so they are linked to the history, legacy and civilizations of all nations that lived on Earth thousands of years ago.
Most of the true seabirds nesting on the Kingdom's islands are considered a summer visitor, meaning that they come to the islands in the spring and summer periods to nest, and after the end of the season they migrate with their young south outside the Saudi territorial waters, and a few of them wander along the Kingdom's coasts and remain in its territorial waters. There are also seabird species that are considered as transient migratory species, which depend on the coasts of the Kingdom to provide food and rest during their migration from north to south or vice versa.
Waterfowl are usually found in natural wet areas, but in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, these species are using wet areas that humans have created (such as artificial lakes and swamps in farms as well as treated sewage water).
According to the studies conducted to identify the important areas for birds in the Kingdom, about 39 important bird areas have been identified, particularly for species threatened with extinction or globally significant populations. The study of the migration periods of some bird species shows that the species that are found in abundance in the spring are not necessarily found in the same numbers in the fall, especially this fact is evident among roosting birds (those wild species of the size of the pigeon or smaller). As for waterfowl and wading birds in particular the opposite is true, as they are abundant during autumn and are only rarely seen in the spring.